A recent promising study demonstrated that orange oil inhibits the growth of E.coli 0157 on beef at refrigeration temperatures. The U.S. study Inhibition of Beef Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 by Orange Oil at Various Temperatures was published in the Journal of Food Science. The team from CSU and the University of Arkansas used a 1% solution at various temperatures of the essential oil, a cold-pressed terpenless Valencia orange oil against three strains of E.Coli. The results were that all strains were inhibited which means that the natural food additive could be used to prevent the bacteria from entering the food chain.